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Acid-Base Titrations

It is a well known fact that an acidic solution has a pH value of less than 7 while an alkaline solution has a pH value of greater tan 7. Therefore, when an acidic solution is reacted with an alkaline solution, pH value changes. These changes in pH value can be determined by any one of the following methods:

(a)    Visual method.

Organic compounds such as methyl orange, phenolphthalein, methyl red and thymol blue are sensitive to pH value and have different colours at different pH values. Using any one of these compounds as indicator, it is possible to determine the changes in pH value and thus the end point.

(b)    Electrical conductivity measurements.

We know that electrical conductivity depends upon the number and mobility of the ions. As the acid and base undergo neutralization, electrical conductivity changes which helps to locate the end point. Titrations bases on electrical conductivity measurements are called conductometric titrations.

(c)    E. M. F. measurements.

Since the electrical potential of hydrogen electrode varies with the concentration of H+ ions (i.e., ph value) with which it is in contact, it is possible to determine the changes in ph when an acid is neutralized by a base by measuring e.m.f. such type of titrations which are based on the measurement of electrical potential are called potentimetric titrations.

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