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Classification Of Solvents

Non-aqueous solvents are generally classified in three categories based on the type of bonding present in them. These are :
(i)    Molecular liquids,
(ii)    Molten salts, and
(iii)    Liquid metals.
Of these three categories, molecular liquids are the most widely used as nonaqueous solvents.* They are liquids at room temperature and the solvents which we shall deal in this chapter belong to this category Molecular liquids are also referred to as :

(i)    ionizing, and
(ii)    non-ionizing solvents.     

(i)    Ionizing Solvents

These solvents are highly polar in nature. They generally dissolve a large number of inorganic compounds in them. These solvents generally contain ionizable protons (like in HF, H2SO4 and NH3) but non-photonic ionizable solvents such as BrF3, IF5 and POCI3 are also known and have been well studied.

  (ii) Non-Ionizing Solvents

 These solvents are nonpolar (or very weakly polar), nondissociated liquids and which do not solvate. Examples of these solvents are carbon tetrachloride and hydrocarbons (such as benzene). Because of their very low polarity, low dielectric constants and poor donor ability, these solvents are not very useful for solution studies except for some non-polar substances. Their main use is that they play very little influence as solvents in the chemistry of reactions studied in these solvents. They are generally considered as inert solvents. Inorganic compounds are often insoluble in these solvents.

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