## Pauling Scale Of Electronegativity

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# Pauling’s Scale of Electronegativity

In 1932, Linus Pauling was the first to propose a scale of electronegativity. He based his scale on the difference ( ΔE ) between the measured energy of a bond A-B [E

__________________ ΔE = [E

According to him if the tow atom A and B have the same electronegativity values then the molecule AB in bonded by purely covalent bonds as in homonuclear molecules A2 or B2. Then , [ E

____________________ [ E

2

or __________________ [ E

Pauling used geometric mean for his caluclatation. Substituting , we get

___________________ ΔE = E

When molecule AB is purely covalent then E

____________________ ΔE = E

____________________ ΔE = E

However, if the two atoms A and B have different electronegativities, the bond A-B will no longer be purely covalent and the energy E

That : ______________ E

In other words, ΔE would be greater than zero.

This excess bond energy ΔE, is called the

___________________ A - B <==> A + B _____________ ( B more electronegative than A )

covalent ionic

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_{(A - B) }] and the energy expected for the purely covalent bond A - B[ E_{(A - B)cov }] That is :__________________ ΔE = [E

_{(A - B) }] - [ E_{(A - B)cov }]According to him if the tow atom A and B have the same electronegativity values then the molecule AB in bonded by purely covalent bonds as in homonuclear molecules A2 or B2. Then , [ E

_{(A - B)cov }] would be the mean of [E_{(A - A) }] and [E_{(B - B)}] that is:____________________ [ E

_{(A - B)cov }] =__1__[E_{(A - A) }] + [E_{(B - B)}] (Arithmetical mean)2

or __________________ [ E

_{(A - B)cov }] = [E_{(A - A) }] - [E_{(B - B)}]^{1/2}(Geometrical mean)Pauling used geometric mean for his caluclatation. Substituting , we get

___________________ ΔE = E

_{(A - B) }] - [E_{(A - A) }] - [E_{(B - B)}]^{1/2}When molecule AB is purely covalent then E

_{(A - B)}] =_{ }[ E_{(A - B)cov }] and ΔE = 0____________________ ΔE = E

_{(A - B) }]_{ - }[ E_{(A - B)cov }] = 0____________________ ΔE = E

_{(A - B) }] - [E_{(A - A) }]**.**[E_{(B - B)}]^{1/2}= 0However, if the two atoms A and B have different electronegativities, the bond A-B will no longer be purely covalent and the energy E

_{(A - B) }would be greater than the mean of E_{A - A }and E_{B - B}That : ______________ E

_{(A - B) }]**>**[E_{(A - A) }]**.**[E_{(B - B)}]^{1/2}In other words, ΔE would be greater than zero.

This excess bond energy ΔE, is called the

**ionic-covalent resonance energy**and arises due to the resonance stabilization of sort:___________________ A - B <==> A + B _____________ ( B more electronegative than A )

covalent ionic

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