Polarization And Polarizability

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Polarization And Polarizability

Anions are larger in size than cations and, therefore, their electron clouds are less tightly held. A small highly charged cation shall, therefore, destroy the electron cloud of the large anions in a manner that it increases the electron density between the nuclei. For example, the large iodide ion, the anion is pulled towards the positive lithium ion. The iodide ion is said to be polarized.  The polarization effect introduces covalence in Lil molecule. The power of an ion to destroy the other ion is known as its polar-izing power and the tendency of the ion to the ion to distort is known as its polarizability. The polarizing power of a cation is proportional to its charge radius ratio. This is illustrated in where a large and soft anion comes under the influence of a small cation. The cation is able to polarize the anion. This result

 Interaction of +ve and -ve ions.

in a deformation of electron cloud on anion , called the polarization of anion . Due to small size of the cation, polarization of the cation is not much . Extensive polarization would be witnessed when cation penetrates the anionic electron cloud giving a covalent bond . In a compound consisting of large negative ions and small positive ions he polarization tends to partial covalent character in ionic compounds . Examples of such ionic-covalent compounds are FeCI3, AICI3, LiBr etc.

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