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The goal of the coding or programming phase is to translate the design of the system produced during the design phase into code in a given programming language like C, C++, Java, Pascal etc., which can be executed by a computer and that performs the computation specified by the design. During this stage design specifications are converted into executable statements.

Nowadays, there is little distinction between coding and module design. In fact, as the design is being done, the result is usually directly typed in, in the form of code and then tested online. Therefore, the coding phase affects both testing and maintenance profoundly As we saw earlier, the time spent in coding is a small percentage of total software cost, while testing and maintenance consume the major percentage. Thus, it should be clear that the goal during coding should not be to reduce the implementation cost, but the goal should be reduce that cost of the later phases, even if it means that the cost of this phase has to increase. In other words, the goal during this phase is not to simplify the job of the programmer. Rather the goal should be to simplify the job of the tester and the maintainer.

Normally, good software development organizations adhere to some well-defined and standard style of coding called coding standards. Most software development organizations formulate their own coding standards that suit them most. The reasons for adhering to standard coding style are the following:

•     It enhances code understanding
•    It encourages good programming practices
•    It gives a uniform appearance to the codes written by different engineers.

Coding standards are a set of conventions that the programmer follows to standardize their compute code to some degree and to make the overall program easier to read. These standards sets out ways of doing several things such as the way variables are to be named, the code is t be laid out, maximum number of source lines that can be allowed per function, etc.

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