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Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model

A.H. Maslow developed a conceptual framework for understanding human motivation which has been widely acclaimed. He defined a person’s effectiveness as a function of matching man’s opportunity with the appropriate position of hierarchy of needs. process of motivation beings with an assumption that behavior, at least in part, is directed towards the achievement of satisfaction of needs. Maslow proposed that human needs can be arranged in a  particular order from the lower to the higher. The need hierarchy is as follows:

1.    Basic Physiological Needs. The needs that are taken as the starting point for motivation theory are the so-called physiological needs. These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life. They include such things as food, clothing, shelter, air, water and other necessities of life.

2.    Safety and Security Needs. After satisfying the physiological needs, people want the assurance of maintaining a given economic level. The want job security, personal bodily security, security of sources of income, provision for old age, insurance against risks, etc.

3.    Social Needs. Man is social being. He is, therefore interested in conversation, sociability, exchange of feelings and grievances, companionship, recognition, belongingness, etc.

4.    Esteem and Status needs. These needs embrace such things as self-confidence, independence, achievement, competence, knowledge, and success. They are also known an egoistic needs. They are concerned with prestige and status of the individual.

5.    Self-fulfillment Needs. The final step under the need priority model is the need for self-fulfillment or the need to fulfil what a person considers to be his mission in life. It involves realizing one’s potentialities for continued self-development and for being creative in the broadest sense of the word. After his other needs are fulfilled, a man has the desire for personal achievement. He wants to do something which is challenging and since this challenge gives him enough dash and initiative to work, it is beneficial to him in particular and to the society in and initiative to work, it is beneficial to him in particular and to the society in general. The sense of achievement gives him psychological satisfaction.

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