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Energy Losses Through Pipe

When the fluid is slowing through  the pipe, some energy (head) is lost to overcome hydraulic resistance. This loss of energy is classified as follows:

1.    Major loss:

The major loss of energy is due to friction. It is determine by Darcy-Weisbach formula or chezy resistance. This loss of energy is classified as follws:

h = 4f L V2 / 2 g d   Darcy – Weisbach formula

h = 4V2 L / C2 d      Chezy’s formula

Where f  = Darcy’s coefficient of friction

           C = Chezy’s constant.

The loss due to friction is much more in case of long pipelines as compared to other losses and hence it is classified as a major loss. It depends on roughness of pipe, length, velocity and diameter of pipe.

2.    Minor losses:

•    The losses due to disturbance in the flow pattern are called as minor losses.

•    It occurs due to sudden contraction or expansion, valves, fittings, bends etc and at entrance and exit form pipe.

•    In case of short pipe, minor losses are to be considered.

•    Whereas in long pipe, it does not makes any serious effect.

(a)    Loss due to sudden enlargement,

hL = (V1 – V2)2/2g

(b)    Loss due to sudden contraction,

hL = [ 1/Cc – 1]2 V2/2g

hL = 0.5 V2/2g It Cc is not given.

(c)    Loss at the entrance,

hL = 0.5 V2/2g

(d)    Loss at exit from pipe,

hL = V2/2g

(e)    Loss due to bends or pipe fitting,

hL = KV2/2g

(f)    Head loss due to an obstacle in a pipe,

hL  = [A/Cc (A-a) -1]2 V2/2g

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