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Management as a process

This is the practitioner’s view of management. Process means a course of action or proceeding. It involves a series of steps to carry out an activity. “Management is the process of planning organizing, leading, and controlling the efforts of organization members and of using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals.” The process defines management as a set of functions performed by managers regardless of their levels, aptitude and skills.

Activities performed by managers while they regard management as a process are briefly explained below:

1. Planning:

In planning, managers think in advance, the goals of the organization and the ways to achieve these goals.

2. Organising:

In organizing, managers integrate and coordinate the financial and non-financial resources of the organization to achieve its goals.

3. Leading:

 It refers to activities performed by managers to direct and influence the behavior of subordinates. This is done through motivation, leadership and communication.

4. Controlling:

 It refers to measuring actual organizational performance and ensuring that it conforms to planned performance. It attempts to find deviations and take measured to correct them.

Since management continuously deals with people and integrates the human resource with non- human resources (men, money, material, machines), it is generally defined as:
(a) A social process
(b) A continuous process
(c) An integrating process

(a) As a social process:

 Management deals with people. It makes the best use of its human resource to convert its inactive resources into productive output(goods and services).It understands human needs and satisfies them though various motivational factors, both financial  (money) and non-financial (power, prestige, recognition etc.)

(b)As a continuous process:

Managers continuously perform the basic functions of management. Organizations strive to achieve their goals and, therefore, continuously need management to integrate their resources.

(c) As an integrating process:

Management coordinates the activities of its departments (production, personnel, marketing and finance) and resources (human and non-human) to achieve maximum output at minimum cost.

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