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Production Process Analysis

Process analysis means the preparation of work detail plan. Process planning is determining the most economical method of performing an operation or activity. It comes after it has been decided as to what is to e made. It develops the broad plan of manufacture for the component or product. Process analysis takes a s its input the drawings or other specifications which show what is to be made and forecasts or orders which indicate the product quantity to be manufactured.

Information required to do process analysis

(a)    Quality of work to e done along with product specifications
(b)    Quality of work to e completed
(c)    Availability of equipments, tools and personnel.
(d)    Sequence in which operations will be performed on the raw materials.
(e)    Names of equipments on which the operations will be performed.
(f)    Standard time for earth operation
(g)    When the operations will be performed.

To ensure maximum economy in production, it is necessary that a deliberate attempt is made to eliminate all useless and excess motions and operations. The elimination of useless and wasteful processes and operations had become known as work simplifications. Special charts, called process charts, have been devised for work simplification. These chars summaries the study of any procedure, system or manufacturing operation. A flow sheet, thus, represents a map of the entire process and is useful in planning industrial plants. A process chart shows the sequence (order) and relation of the elements of a process. In such charts, symbols are used to denote elements of the process under investigation. For this purpose, actions or elements of a process are first classified into five groups using the following symbols. 

            Symbol                                             Meaning
           Small Circle                                    Operation
          An Arrow                                           Transpiration
          A Small Square                               Inspection
          A ‘D’                                                   Delay
          A Triangle                                         Storage

The above symbols can be used to classify concisely the various steps involved in a particular process. For example, if a process invoices the assembly of three parts into a simple mechanism, a process chart can be prepared for it in terms f the above symbols presenting a picture of the various elements involved. For part No. 1. For Instance, the process chart may be shown as under.

The operation chart may be used to depict the details of an element of the progress chart, that is, an operation. The time element in the performance of different elements is ignored here. A process flow cart is an expanded version of the process cart. It is prepared in a form with pre-printed symbols and shows the time required for each operation, too. There are many such varieties of charts developed by the industrial engineers.

The whole object is to make an attempt to find out
(A) Whether some element of the work can be eliminated
(b) Whether some parts of the operation can be combined
(c) Whether time and effort can be saved through   a change of sequence, and
(d) Whether the operation can be simplified.

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