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Significance of Mitosis

1. Equal distribution of chromosomes. The essential feature of mitosis is that chromosomes are distributed equally among the two daughter cells. With every cell division there is a division of chromosomes. Repeated division by mitosis from the zygote onwards ensures as identical genetic constitution for all the cells of the body. The constant number of chromosomes in all the cells of the body is because of mitosis.

2. Surface-volume ratio.  Mitosis restores the surface-volume ratio of the cell. A small cell has a greater amount of surface available in relation to volume that a large cell. As the cell increases in size the available surface area in relation to increased volume becomes less. By undergoing division the cell becomes smaller in size and the surface volume ration is restored.

3. Nucleoplasmic index. The growth of the multicellular organism is due to mitosis. A cell cannot grow in size to a large extent without a particular size has been reached the cell divides to restore the nucleoplasmic index. Thus growth takes place by an increase in the number of cells, rather than by increase in the size of the cells. An idea of growth due to mitosis can be obtained from the fact that the human body contains 60,000,000,000,000, cells, all ultimately derived by division of a single cell.

4. Repair of the body takes place because of addition of cells by mitosis. Dead cells of the upper layer of the epidermis, cells of the lining og the gut, and red blood corpuscles are constantly being replaced. It is estimated that in the human body about 500,000,000,000, cells are lost daily.

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