Application Of Chelate Formation

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Application of Chelate Formation

Chelates find wide applications both in industry and laboratory where fixing of metal ions is required.

1.    Formation of Chelates in Analytical Chemistry :

Standard EDTA solutions are widely used in volumetric analysis to determine the hardness of water. In this analysis EDTA complexes Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions which are responsible form hardness in water. Dimethlgloxime solution reacts with Ni2+ ions in ammoniacal medium and forms a red coloured precipitate of bis(dimethylglyoximato) nickel(II). Thus method is used for the quantitative estimation of Ni2+ ions. In volumetric analysis chelating agents are often used as indicators for the titration of some metal ions.

2.    Formation of Chelates in Living Systems :

Hemoglobin imparts red colour to the human blood. It is a complex protein molecule, made up of simple heme molecules. Each heme group contains four nitrogen atoms which coordinate (Chelate formation to Fe+ ion. Hemoglobin picks up O2 (form air which we breathe) and forms oxyhemoglobin in the lungs. Oxygen is released in the tissues, where it is needed for cell metabolism.

The green colouring matter present in plants which is called chlorophyll is a square planar chelate containing Mg2+ ions. This compound converts CO2 and H2O to starches and sugars in the plants and the necessary energy for this reaction is provided by the sun’s radiations.

Human beings have developed certain defense mechanisms form heavy metal ions such as Cd2+ , As3+, Hg2+ etc., which are highly poisonous. These metal ions are bound as chelated in our body by mucus metallothioneins, which are low molecular Wight proteins. These metal ions are thus inhibited form release into the organoisms.

3.    Formation of Chelates in Medicinal Treatment :

The concentration of certain metal ions which may cause harmful effects in foods, drugs, cosmetics etc., are controlled by binding then as complex ions by the addition of chelating ligands. Poisoning by certain metals is also cured by binding them with chelate ligands. In case of poisoning by lead, the patient is given injections of CaNa2 EDTA which form Pb-EDTA complex and in this form it is extracted form the body through the urine. Similarly, presence of free CI2+ ions in the liver (which cause central nervous disorders) are removed by giving penicillamine to the patient. It forms chelate complex with Cu2+ ions through O, N & S donors present in the same molecule.

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