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Basicity Of Metal Oxides

Acidic oxides tend to increase the H+ concentration when dissolved in water. For example.
                                           N2O5 + H2O  <==>   2H+  +  2NO3-
Basic oxides tend to decrease the H+ concentration. For example,
                                           CaO + H2O   <==>  Ca2+ +  2OH-
Amphitricha oxides are those which behave as acids as well as bases. For example,
                                         AI2O3  +  6H+  <==>    2AI3+  +  3H2O         (basic)
                                       AI2O3  +  2OH<==>  2AIO2- +  H2O             (acidic)
Basic character of metal oxides increases progressively with increase in atomic weight along a group in the periodic table. For example, in Group 13 oxides, B2O3 is acidic, AI2O3 and Ga2O3 are amphitricha but others In2O3 and TI2O are predominantly basic. Although, the charge on the metal atom remains the same in the group but the size increases as atomic weight inverts with the result charge-to-size ratio decrees and basicity increases. However, because of very small size of B3+ (with high polarizing power), its charge-to-size ratio is exceptionally large relative to others with the result that it has exceptionally higher acidic character. Similarly, Group 2 oxides show progressive increase in basic character; Be+ is amphitricha, MgO is weakly base can other CaO, SrO and BaO are basic and basicity increase. Because of exceptionally small size of Be+ and higher charge-to-size ratio, basicity of BeO is significantly lower than the next member of the group.

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