Characteristics Of Covalent Compounds

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Characteristics of Covalent Compounds

(a)    State of existence.

 Since covalent compounds are formed by sharing of electrons between individual atoms, they consist of simple individual covalent molecules which generally exist in gaseous or liquid phase. Covalent compounds which are solids are either amorphous or constitute what are known as molecular crystals having weak intermolecular forces.

(b)    Low melting and boiling points.

Covalent compounds have generally low melting or boiling points since only a little energy is required to overcome the weak intermolecular forces.

(c)    Non-Conducting.

compounds are poor conductors of electricity in the fused state or in aqueous solution. This is because they made up of molecules (and not ions) which are neutal.

(d)    Solubility.

They are generally soluble in organic solvent such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride or ether but only rarely soluble in water.

(e)    Non-ionic reactions.

 The reaction involving covalent compounds are very slow as the reaction involve between molecules rather than ions.

(f)    Directional Nature.

Since covalent compounds are formed by overlapping of orbital which are directed in space the covalent bonds have directional nature. As a result covalent compounds acquire a particulars shape or geometry.

(g)    Isomerism.

 Covalent compounds generally exhibit isomerism.

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