Conditions Under Distribution Law

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Conditions under Distribution Law

The distribution law is valid only if the following conditions are satisfied:

(i)    The temperature must remain constant throughout the experiment.

(ii)    The two liquids (solvents) should be mutually immiscible.

(iii)    The amount of the solute added should be small i.e. the solution should be dilute. This is essential because in certain cases, the solute added affects the mutual solubility of the solvents.

(iv)    The solute must have the same molecular state in both the solvents i.e., it should not undergo association or dissociation in any of the solvents or combination with any of the solvents. Thus the law is not valid for the distribution of benzoic aside between water and benzene because it ahs been observed that in benzoic, benzoic acid undergoes association to form dimmers i.e. it exists as (C6H5COOH)2. Similarly the law is also not valid for the distribution of any electrolyte Like HCI acid) between water and a non-polar solvent like benzene, CS2, CCI4 etc. because the electrolytes undergo dissociation water.*

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