Human And Participative Theories

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Human and Participative Theories

 The classical theory of organization was opposed in 1950’s when the behavioral theories emerged on the management scenario. The classical theory was criticized for being highly mechanistic, formal and impersonal. McGregor propounded Theory Y which emphasized on human relationships as important contributors to organizational goals.

Hawthorne experiments conducted by Elton Mayo also supported social and informal interactions amongst work groups to increase organizational efficiency.

The human theories focused on people as means to achieve the tasks. These theories characterized a shaft from task-oriented approach to people- oriented approach for achieving the organizational goals. They are comparatively less mechanistic, impersonal and formal than the classical theory.

Features of the Human and participative Theories:

Following are the important features of these theories;

(a)    People do not wish to be directed. They self-direct and self-control their activates,
(b)    Plans are made in consultation with subordinated. Participative styles of management are adopted.
(c)    People not only accept responsibility; they seek the same.
(d)    People are allowed to use their imagination, creativity and innovativeness in enhancing the organizational efficiency.
(e)    Not only are organizational resources fully utilized; human potentialities are also optimally utilized.
(f)    There is increase in productivity along with employee satisfaction.
(g)    They harmonies individual goals with organizational goals rather than focus only on organizational goals.
(h)    They view subordinates as innovative, creative and challenging and, thus, advocate a wide span of control.
(i)    They accept informal organizations (or groups) as important outgrowth of formal structures that exist together.

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