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International Orientation

The degree and nature of involvement in international business by companies vary very widely. The EPRG scheme is helpful understanding the levels of involvement of firms in international business. The EPRG framework identifies four types of attitude.

Ethnocentric Orientation

•    Strong orientation towards the home country.

•    Overseas operation viewed as secondary to domestic operation, primarily as means of disposing of “surplus’ domestic production.

•    Home base is used for production of standardized products for export in order to gain some marginal business.

•    Plans for overseas markets are developed in home offices, using policies and procedures identical to those employed in domestic market.

•    Overseas marketing is commonly administered by an export department.

•    Overseas operation conducted from a home country base with strong reliance on export agent.

•    Domestic product mix without major modifications for overseas market.

•    Ethnocentrism in international marketing is characterized by “Extension Strategy’.

•    Appropriate for small companies; first time entering in international operations or companies with minimal international commitments entails minimum risk and commitments to overseas markets.

•    Pricing decisions are often from home market; which might not fit the local market.

•    No international investment

Polycentric Orientation

•    A strong orientation to the host country.

•    Polycentric attitude arises when company begins to recognize the importance of inherent differences in overseas market.

•    The attitude places emphasis on differences between markets that are caused by variations within, such as income, culture, laws and politics.

•    The assumption is that each market is unique.

•    Personnel form the host country are often employed and allowed to have a great deal of discretion in market decision.

•    Local personnel and techniques are best suited to deal with local market conditions.

•    Subsidiaries established in overseas markets-each subsidiary operates independently and establishes own marketing objective and plans.

•    Environment of each market is considered while formulating marketing strategy.

•    Market segmentation is dome on a country basis.

•    Emphasis is put on local laws, custom and culture and great care s taken to understand the local way of doing business.

•    Results in maximum degree of geographic decentralization.

•    Marketing is characterized Adaptation Strategy.

•    Most important merit of polycentrism is the adaptation of the marketing strategies to the local

•    A significant degree of decentralization.

Regiocentric Orientation

•    Companies view different regions as different markets.

•    A particular region with certain important common marketing characteristic is regarded as a single market.

•    Given the dis-economies of scale of individualized marketing strategies each tailored to a specific local environment, companies have begun to emphasize strategies for large regions.

•    Strategy integration, product policy, are implemented are regional level.

Geocentric orientation

•    Companies view the entire world as a single market and develop standardized marketing mix projecting uniform image of the company and its products for the global market. common R&D, inventory management & training.

•    Provide improved co-ordination and control etc.

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