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Off-the-job Training

In these methods, training is given to workers outside the work place. Emphasis is more on learning than doing. Employees do not learn while working on-the-job but learn in conditions which are more or less similar to actual work place. Training is provided by experts who arrange special training programmers at a place other than the work Place. Employees do not disturb the work schedule during the training period. They concentrate on training and pick the job skills faster when they actually perform their jobs. However, this method is costly as experts. Programmers and situations (simulations) have to be arranged. This method is therefore, suitable when job requirements are complex and number of employees to be trained is large. Some of the common off-the-job training methods are discussed below:

1.    Vestibule training :

In this form of training, working conditions similar to actual condition are created outside the place of work and employees are trained in those conditions. Employees learn job conditions without disturbing work on-the-job. This method of training is suitable where large number of employees have to be trained.


1.    Training does not affect work are actual work conditions; 2. Training is provided by experts; 3. Managers are relieved of training the workers. They can concentrate on important organizational matters.


1.    Actual work conditions are different form conditions created for training. Employees may not feel confident with actual jobs; 2. It is expensive as special training facilities are provided by organizations.

2.    Lectures/Demonstration:

Without working in same or similar work condition, training is provided through lectures in class rooms. Demonstration trough tapes and computers are the common forms of training under theist method.

3.    Simulation:

Artificial situations similar to actual work conditions are created and employees learn skills of the job in these condition. Training airline pilots and computer programmers is provided through simulation models. This form of training is provided though the following methods.

(a)    Case studies:

A case similar to actual working conditions or organizational problems is prepared and presented to trainees. The trainer presents the facts of the case to trainees. Trainees analyze the case, use their judgment and initiative and arrive at alternative solutions, through a careful comparison of costs and benefits of each case; they arrive at the best solution to the problem. This method develops mental abilities o trainees to dial with actual organization problems.

(b) Role playing:

Trainees are assigned different roles to play similar to those they have to perform at actual work places. They man, for example, be made to act as managers salesmen etc. In classroom conditions to know the way they to perform they roles actually.

4.    Sensitivity training:

It involves making raining groups where members freely interact with each other, express their viewpoints and accept other’ viewpoints on job condition. No formal interaction takes place amongst them. Trainer observes this interaction and interrupts only to maintain order and discipline.

5.    Training Institutes :

Some companies send their employees to training institutes to get training. They learn job skills in these institutes and apply them in actual job conditions.    

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