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Principles of Planning

Principles provide the basis for sound planning. Koontz et al describe the following principles for effective planning:

1. Principal of contribution to objectives:

Plans must be directed towards organizational objectives.

2. Principle of objectives:

Since objectives are the basis for planning, they must be clear, specific, measurable and unambiguous. They must be understood and accepted by all the organizational members.

3. Principle of primacy of planning:

Planning is pre-requisite to other managerial functions. It must be effectively dome so that other functions of management also contribute to the overall organizational goals.

4. Principle of efficiency of plans:

Plans must be efficient in their contribution to objectives i.e., returns must exceed their costs.

5. Principle of planning premises;

Planning premises are assumptions or forecasts about future on which  plans are based. They are “the anticipated environment in which plans are expected to operate. They include assumptions or forecasts of the future and known conditions that will affect the operation of plans Premises form the foundation of plans. Sound planning premises help in making sound plans. They reduce uncertainty in achieving planned targets. Premises or assumptions are based on the information that managers generate BT forecasting. Forecasting, thus, precedes planning premises and premises precede planning.

6. Principle of strategy and policy framework:

Strategies and policies help to attain organizational objectives. Clear policies and strategies lead to clear and effective plans.

7. Principle of limiting factor:

Limiting factor limits the organization to achieve its goals, while selecting a course of action; managers narrow their search for alternatives and try to overcome them. The principle of limiting factor states; “By recognizing and overcoming those factors that stands critically in the way of a goal, the best alternative course of action can be selected.”

8. Principle of commitment:

Plans should cover a time span that allows manages to fulfill their commitment to the decisions.

9. Principle of flexibility:

Plans must be flexible to adjust to environmental changes.

10. Principle of flexibility:

This principle is closely related to the principle of flexibility. It reviews the plans from time to the and reframes them if the need arises (according to future changes and expectations) as the navigator does when the ship is not going in the right direction.

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