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Theory X

Theory X assumes that people by nature are lazy, dislike work, do not want to assume responsibility, work only if directed by managers and are very little or not ambitious about achieving their higher-order needs. They only want to fulfill their primary needs of food, clothing, shelter and security. Motivators like money and fringe benefits (insure ace etc.) make them contribute to organizational goals.

The assumptions of Theory X are:

   (a)Managers organize and integrate various human and physical resources to achieve
       Economic goals of the enterprise.
   (b)Workers are, by nature, lazy and like to work as little as possible.

   (c) Workers lack ambition, avoid responsibility and work only it directed to work.

   (d) Workers want to satisfy their individual goals and are indifferent towards
         organizational goals.

    (e) Managers direct, motivate, control and modify human behavior to meet the
         Organizational goals.
     (f) People are resistant change and want to work in stable conditions.

     (g) Workers’ lower-order needs are stronger than higher-order needs
     (h) Workers work through rewards, punishments and coercion. If managers do not
           Persuade the m to work, organizational goals will not be achieved.

This is a pessimistic approach of human behavior. If provides rigid control, close supervision, one way communication and autocratic style of leadership for motivating human beings. The theory defines management as the are to getting things done by following the carrot and stick approach.

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