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Two-Factor Theory

Herzberg categorized two sets of factors that provided satisfaction or dissatisfaction to employees. These are: Hygiene factors and Motivators.

1.    Hygiene factors:

These factors are insurance policies, retirement benefit plans, salary structure, bonus, hob security, relationship with superiors, peer group and subordinates, working conditions, company’s policies and administration, supervision etc.Herzberg found that presence of these factors provide no dissatisfaction to employees, that is, presence of these factors do not motivate the workers to perform better but their absence becomes a source of dissatisfaction. These factors are shown on a single continuum ranging from dissatisfaction (if they are absent) to no dissatisfaction (if they are present).

They are also called maintenance factors, dissatisfies or extrinsic factors; maintenance, because they maintain the level of performance on the job; dissatisfies, because their absence dissatisfy the workers and deteriorate their performance; and extrinsic because they are related to the work environment (job context) and not to the job id done.

The hygiene factors appear on continuum as follows:

Presence   ______________________________________      Absence
(no dissatisfaction)                                                                            (Dissatisfaction)
__________________[Hygiene factors such as working
________________Conditions, salary, supervision, security etc.]

2.    Motivators:

These factors are related to the job content, like achievement and recognition; innovative projects, challenge, opportunities for personal growth, responsibility etc.

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