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Time study

Every operation is capable of division into a number of detailed elements. Time Study may be defined primarily as the art of observing and recording the time required to do each detailed element of an industrial operation. It involves the careful measurement of the time required to do the several detailed parts of a given operation. The basic purpose of time study is to determine the proper time for performing the operation. Such study may be conducted after the motion study. One method of time study is the use the microtone’ to obtain a complete recorded of everything connected with the oepration.This is, however,too costly and requires elaborate equipment. The other convenient and economical methodic these of stop watch for timing each part of the operation under study. The worker selected for time study should be of the average sill and ability. If a first-rate worker is selected for this purpose, the standards of the best time for each operation may be fixed too low for a majority of workers to attain. When the time taken by the selected ordinary type of worker has been recorde, the abnormally high or low readings should be eliminated. The rest of the readings may, then, be averaged. As an alternative, them model time or the model time or the observation which occurs most frequently may be taken as the basis. After adopting a basic timing for an operation, allowance must be made for some factors.

First , the basic or the average time obtained is multiplied by a rating factor to determine an adjusted time in which the operator should perform the work under normal conditions. The rating factor is determined by the time study engineer on the basis of the speed, skill and effort with which the worker under study works as against a works as against a worker of normal efficient. Thus if the normal worker is rated at 100 on the basis mentioned above, the other worker under study may berate as follows:

50 Very Poor                                           100 Normal (Average)
75 Poor                                                    125 GOOD
150 Very Good

Secondly, If the readings have been recorded for short periods of work, allowance must be made for the difference which fatigue arising in longer periods of work will make to the time taken in performing an operation. Thirdly, allowance must be made for machine delays, personal delays, personal needs (washing,etc., or wiping perspiration if working outdoors ) and preparation for the jobs.Usually,aflat percentage (say 3%or 5% ) is added to the total time set for determining the standard time in which an operation should be completed.

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