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Laws of Thermo e.m.f.

(i) Law of Intermediate Metals.

 The introduction of any additional metal into any thermoelectric circuit does not alter the thermo emf provided the metal introduced is entirely at the same temperature as the point at which the metal is introduced.

If aEb is the emf for a couple made of metals A and B, and bEc that for the couple of metals B and C, then the emf for couple of metals A and C is given by

            aEc = aEb + bEc

(ii) Law of Intermediate Temperatures.

The thermo emf E31 of a thermocouple whose junctions are maintained at temperatures T1 and T3 is equal to the sum of the emfs E21 and E32 when the junctions are maintained at temperatures T1 T2 and T2, T3 respectively. Thus

            E31 = E21 + E32

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